Yanditswe kuya 2017-12-14 02:19:32
Raporo ku ruhare rw’abategetsi b’Abafaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda
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Mu mpera z’Ugushyingo 2016, Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wa Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yemeje ko iperereza ku ruhare bamwe mu bategetsi bakuru ba Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994 ryatangiye. Mu rwego rw’iryo perereza, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yasabye Ikigo k’inzobere mu by’amategeko “Cunningham Levy Muse LLP” gikorera Washington muri Amerika ngo gikusanye kandi kiyishyikirize amakuru n’ibimenyetso byose biboneka bigaragaza uruhare abategetsi bakuru muri Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Inshamake
Iyi raporo ikubiyemo inshamake y’amakuru yashyizwe ahagaragara mu bihe bitandukanye yerekana uruhare abategetsi bakuru muri Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bagize mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu gihe yakorwaga na nyuma y’aho. Iyi raporo inavuga ku bireba amakuru arebana na Jenoside Abafaransa bari bazi.

N’ubwo iyi raporo igerageza gusobanura mu magambo arambuye amakuru ahari kuri iyi ngingo, nta bwo twavuga ko irimo amakuru yose yaboneka kuri iyi ngingo. Ubwo twasomaga inyandiko zitandukanye kuri iyi ngingo, twasuzumanye ubushishozi amakuru yose twabonye, tunareba aho ayo makuru yabaga yaturutse, ngo tumenye niba koko ayo makuru afatika. Twegeranyije ayo makuru yose uko twayabonye nta cyo twongeyemo cyangwa ngo dukuremo ni ukuvuga ibyabaye n’amakuru Abafaransa bari bazi arebana na Jenoside.

N’ubwo twavuga byinshi ku ruhare ndetse n‘amakuru abategetsi bakuru muri Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bari bazi ku mugambi mubisha wa Jenoside, nta bwo twatanga umwanzuro wa nyuma cyangwa ngo tumere nk’abaca urubanza, ahubwo tubona hakwiye gukomeza iperereza mu buryo bwimbitse.

Ingabo z’ubufaransa zitoza interahamwe
Mu mwaka wa 1998, Itsinda (commission) ry’Abadepite b’Abafaransa ryagerageje gukora iperereza ku ruhare abategetsi bakuru muri Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Amakuru yavuye muri iryo perereza ubu ni imwe mu nyandiko zikomeye zivuga kuri iyi ngingo kandi yashyizwe ahagaragara.

Cyakora iryo perereza ryakozwe n’abadepite b’Abafaransa nta bwo ryakozwe ngo rirangire, yemwe ntiryananyuze mu mucyo. Nk’urugero, iri tsinda ry’abadepite ryagize ibanga bumwe mu buhamya bwatanzwe, ahandi ugasanga hari abo ritashoboye kubaza cyangwa kuganira na bo kuko nta bubasha ryari ribafiteho. Ubwo iri tsinda ryari ryaraye rishyize ahagaraga ibyavuye muri iryo perereza, Jean- Claude Lefort, umwe mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Bufaransa akaba yari anungirije uyoboye iri tsinda, abinyujije mu itangazo ryagenewe abanyamakuru, yatangaje ko batashyize umukono kuri raporo kuko hari zimwe mu ngingo zirimo kandi zikomeye batashoboye kubonera amakuru neza. Mu mwaka wa 2008, mu kiganiro yatanze, bwana Lefort yagize ati “Nemera ko iperereza ryakozwe n’itsinda ry’abadepite twari kumwe ko ritashoboye kurangiza inshingano ryari rifite yo kugaragaza ukuri.”

Ikindi kibazo kigaragara gikomeye ni uko Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa n’abategetsi bakuru bayo bakomeje kwanga gushyira ahagaragara inyandiko zose zireba uruhare bagenzi babo bababanjirije bagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi cyangwa se amakuru bari bafite ayerekeye. Abategetsi bakuru ba Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa, ab’ubu n’abababanjirije bafite amakuru nyayo bataratangaza ku mugaragaro kugeza ubu.

Nyamara n’ubwo amakuru yashyizwe ahagaragara atuzuye, dushyizemo na raporo ya rya tsinda ry’Abadepite b’Abafaransa, inkuru zinyuranye abanyamakuru batangaje ndetse n’ibyo abashakashatsi bakoze, usanga bisa n’ibitunga agatoki Abategetsi muri Guverinoma y’Ubufaransa ko bari bazi iby’umugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ndetse banagize uruhare mu bikorwa bifite aho bihuriye n’iyo Jenoside.

Inshamake y’ibikubiye muri iyi raporo ni ikurikira :

Icya mbere, iyi raporo izagaragaza inkomoko y’uko u Bufaransa bwatangiye kwinjira mu bikorerwa mu Rwanda. Nyuma y’urugomo n’ubwicanyi byagiriwe Abatutsi biteguwe na Guverinoma byatangiye muri 1959, bikanatuma ibihumbi byinshi muri bo bahunga igihugu, u Bufaransa bwatangiye gufasha Leta ahagana mu mwaka wa 1962. Mu myaka ya za 1970 na 1980, inkunga y’u Bufaransa yagiye yiyongera igera no kugufasha mu bya gisirikare, n’ubwo Abategetsi b’u Bufaransa bari bazi neza iby’ubwicanyi n’urugomo byagiriwe Abatutsi mu myaka ya 1960 na za 1970. Mu ntangiriro za 1990, Igihugu cy’u Bufaransa cyari gifite uruhare rukomeye mu bibera mu Rwanda kuruta ikindi gihugu kindi icyo ari cyose ku Isi.

Amashyirahamwe y’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda, usanga yari afite intego zimwe n’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi (FPR), Umuryango uharanira ko Abanyarwanda bose bagira uburenganzira bungana, ntiyageze ku ntego yari yihaye yo gucyura impunzi z’Abatutsi mu Rwanda. Igihe intambara yari itangiye hagati ya Leta y’u Rwanda n’ishami rya gisirikare ry’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi (RPA) mu Kwakira mu mwaka 1990, abayobozi ba Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa bohereje abasirikare babo mu Rwanda mu kiswe ’Opération Noroît’, bitwaje ko baje kurinda abaturage b’Abafaransa babaga mu Rwanda.

Nyamara mu minsi mike Perezida Mitterand n’abandi bategetsi b’u Bufaransa bongereye umubare n’ubushobozi bw’abasirikare ba ’Opération Noroît’, bahinduka abajyanama mu bya gisirikare, banaha Leta y’u Rwanda inkunga igaragara mu kurwanya FPR-Inkotanyi. Muri iyi ntambara, abajyanama b’Abafaransa bafashije Leta mu kuyiha inama mu bya gisirikare, mu kwiyubaka, banayoherereza abasirikare amagana (ndetse bashobora kuba bagera mu bihumbi), ari nako banayiha intwaro n’ibindi bikoresho by’intambara bikomeye kandi bigezweho. Abasirikare bakuru b’Abafaransa bari mu Rwanda banagize uruhare mu guhembera ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ubwo bavugaga ko umwanzi w’igihugu atari FPR, ahubwo ari Abatutsi, mu gihe urwango rw’Abatutsi rwakomezaga kubibwa umunsi ku wundi n’itangazamakuru rya Leta.

Abafaransa bagize uruhare mu gutoza abakoze Jenoside
Mu ntangiriro ya 1990, abajyanama b’Abafaransa bariyongereye ku buryo wabasangaga hafi muri buri biro bya Guverinoma no mu gisirikare. Amakuru ari ahagaragara yerekana ko Abategetsi b’Abafaransa bafashije mu gushyiraho iz’ingenzi mu nzego za gisirikare, usanga zaranagize uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi (Ingabo z’u Rwanda (FAR) zirimo n’Umutwe warindaga Umukuru w’Igihugu, Umutwe wa gisirikare udasanzwe (paracommando), ndetse n’abajandarume).

Icya kabiri, iyi raporo irasuzuma ibijyanye n’amakuru arebana n’iyicwa ry’Abatutsi mu ntangirizo za 1990, Abategetsi b’u Bufaransa bari bafite icyo gihe. N’ubwo aya makuru y’ubugizi bwa nabi abategetsi b’Abafaransa bari bayazi neza, ntibyababujije ko bakomeza kohereza intwaro mu Rwanda, bakanaziha Leta y’u Rwanda yakoraga ubwo bwicanyi bugambiriye kurimbura ubwoko.
Iki gice cya raporo kiravuga uko Abategetsi b’Abafaransa bemeye ndetse bakanorohereza Leta y’Abajenosideri gukorera inama muri Ambasade y’u Bufaransa ya Kigali, ari naho hashyiriweho Guverinoma yiyise iy’Abatabazi ari na yo yakoze Jenoside. Abategetsi b’Abafaransa bakingiye ikibaba Guverinoma yiyise iy’Abatabazi ubwo Jenoside yakorwaga, bakabikora bavuga ko hari impande (ubwoko) ebyiri zihanganye. Ibi ni nabyo bagiraga urwitwazo igihe Leta y’u Bufaransa yabaga ibajijwe impamvu ishyigikiye Leta ikora Jenoside n’igisirikare cyayo.

Tariki 6 Mata 1994, (n’ubwo Ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zari zangiwe kuhagera), abategetsi babiri b’Abafaransa bemerewe kugera aho indege yari itwaye Perezida Habyarimana yari yaguye nyuma yo guhanurwa, ikanamuhitana n’abo bari kumwe, ubwo yari agarutse mu gihugu ava Dar Es Salaam, ahari habereye inama yahuzaga abakuru b’ibihugu by’akarere.

Kugeza ubu, amakuru yamenyekanye areba aho iyo ndege yaguye ni make cyane. Nyuma gato y’ihanurwa ry’iyo ndege, Abajenosideri na radio yabo bihutiye gutangaza ko FPR n’Ababiligi ari bo bayihanuye, binaba urwitwazo ngo batangire gukora Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu gihe nyamara ahubwo FPR yo yari mu myiteguro yo gushyira mu bikorwa ibikubiye mu masezerano ya Arusha. Uko kwangira abandi kugera ahaguye indege bitwaje ngo ari ukurinda ibimenyetso byatumye Abajenosideri n’ababashyigikiye bakomeza gukwirakwiza ibihuha bivuga ko FPR n’u Bubiligi ari bo bahanuye iyo ndege.

Nyuma y’aho Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itangiriye, Abategetsi b’u Bufaransa bohereje abasirikare mu cyiswe Operation Amaryllis bari baje guhungisha Abafaransa bari mu Rwanda. Uretse guhungisha Abafaransa, Amaryllisy banahungishije abo mu muryango wa Habyarimana, ikingira ikibaba abategetsi bakuru mu bakoraga Jenoside ndetse inabangamira ingabo za Loni ubwo zageragezaga kurinda inzirakarengane zicwaga. Izo ngabo za Amaryllis nta cyo zakoze ngo zirokore cyangwa zirengere Abatutsi bicwaga cyangwa abataravugaga rumwe na Leta bishwe mu minsi ya mbere ya Jenoside. Abasirikare bo mu mutwe wa Amaryllis ntibanahungishije abana ba nyakwigendera Minisitiri w’Intebe Uwilingiyimana Agathe wishwe mu masaha ya mbere Jenoside igitangira.

Icya gatatu, iyi raporo izanavuga uko Abategetsi b’Abafaransa batangije Opération Turquoise, mu gihe hari hashize iby’umweru bigera ku 10 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itangiye, Opération Turquoise yaje igamije kurinda no gukingira ikibaba Guverinoma yiyise iy’Abatabazi. N’ubwo ari icyo yari igamije, u Bufaransa bwasobanuriye Umuryango w’Abibumbye ko Opération Turquoise igamije ubutabazi. Nyamara ibiganiro abategetsi baganiraga hagati yabo n’imyitwarire yabo byerekana ko nta kindi cyari kigamijwe uretse kubuza FPR gukuraho Guverinoma yari yariyise iy’Abatabazi. Byagarutsweho kenshi ndetse no muri uyu mwaka turimo itangazamakuru ryarabivuze ko Hubert Vedrine, wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Perezida Mitterand, yategetse ko u Bufaransa bukomeza guha intwaro Leta y’Abajenosideri.

Icya kane, iyi raporo izanagaruka ku nyandiko n’ubuhamya byerekana ko abategetsi b’Abafaransa bakomeje gukingira ikibaba abajenosideri. Nyuma y’aho RPF ibohoreye u Rwanda ikanahagarika Jenoside, abategetsi b’Abafaransa bafashije abajenosideri guhungira mu nkambi zo muri Zaire (n’ahandi), aho bageze bakisuganya, bagakomeza gushaka intwaro ari nako bakomeza kubuza umutekano no kwica Abatutsi bake bari barokotse. Ni no muri icyo gihe, Leta y’u Bufaransa yahagaritse inkunga ndetse inabangamira abandi bifuzaga gutera inkunga Guverinoma y’Ubumwe yari imaze kujyaho.

Iki gice kandi kizanavuga ku bireba uko abategetsi b’u Bufaransa banabangamiye cyane ibyo kumenya ukuri kuri Jenoside n’ubutabera ku nzirakarengane zayiguyemo, aho kugera ubu muri iki gihugu cy’u Bufaransa hamaze kuburanishwa imanza eshatu gusa mu gihe hari abajenosideri 30 bazwi bidegembya cyangwa se kuba u Bufaransa bwaranze kubohereza kuburanira mu Rwanda ; u Bufaransa bukaba bwarananze no gushyira ahagaragara inyandiko bufite zirebana na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Abategetsi b’Abafaransa kandi banakomeje kuyobya uburari no kubangamira icyo ari cyo cyose kigamije kwerekana uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside ndetse no kwitambika mu nzira z’ubutabera.

Mu magambo make : Binyuze mu bikorwa byabo binyuranye mu Rwanda mu ntangiriro za 1990 na nyuma y’aho, Abategetsi b’Abafaransa bari bafite amakuru ahagije ku rugomo n’ubwicanyi byaberaga mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994, ariko bo bihitiramo ahubwo kurushaho guteza imbere umubano na Leta y’u Rwanda y’icyo gihe.

Uyu mubano n’inkunga byarakomeje no mu gihe Jenoside yabaga, ndetse gufasha abajenosideri ntibyahagaze n’igihe FPR yari imaze kubohora igihugu ikanahagarika Jenoside. U Bufaransa bunakomeje gukoresha uko bushoboye ngo buhishe uruhare rwabwo muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ndetse no kubangamira ko abayigizemo uruhare bakurikiranwa. Ibi ni byo bituma na n’ubu abantu batarabona inyandiko zose u Bufaransa bufite cyangwa nibura kuba aba bategetsi b’Abafaransa batanga ubuhamya ku ruhare rwabo mu byabereye mu Rwanda cyangwa amakuru bari bafite.

U Bufaransa bukwiye gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo abaturage b’u Rwanda na b’u Bufaransa bamenye ukuri kose ku byabaye. Kuri iyi ngingo, abategetsi b’Abafaransa bakomeje kubangamira uburenganzira bw’abaturage bwo kumenya ukuri ku makuru na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Abategetsi b’Abafaransa banze gukorana n’u Rwanda ngo batange inyandiko zivuga kuri Jenoside ndetse no gutanga ubuhamya.

Abategetsi b’u Bufaransa ni gake baburanishije cyangwa ngo bakurikirane abakekwaho icyaha cya Jenoside. Mu bihe bitandukanye, abategetsi b’Abafaransa banakomeje kugoreka amateka mu nyandiko ndetse banayobya uburari ku ruhare rw’abategetsi b’Abafaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ibi ntibyasubije inyuma gusa kuba ukuri kwamenyekana, ahubwo binabangamira cyane ko abafite ababo bazize Jenoside bahabwa ubutabera.

Hashingiwe ku bimenyetso bigaragara, iperereza rya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ku ruhare rw’Abafaransa n’amakuru bari bazi arebana na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ni ndashidikanywaho. Ibi bikwiye kumvikana neza kandi bigasobanuka. Iperereza rizifashisha amakuru n’ibimenyetso bigaragara ariko kandi rizanafashwa cyane n’inyandiko zihari n’ubuhamya.

Iperereza kandi rikwiye no gusuzuma uko abategetsi b’Abafaransa bagiye borohereza amaperereza yabanje cyangwa uko bagiye bitwara ubwo basabwaga gutanga amakuru n’ibirebana n’umwanzuro wo gukora iperereza ubwawo. Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa ifite inyandiko nyinshi, amafoto, ibimenyetso bigaragara, inyandiko mu bushyingura-nyandiko bwayo n’abantu bazi imbonankubone kandi bafite amakuru y’ibyabaye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kimwe n’amakuru areba Jenoside bari bazi icyo gihe.Ivomo rikaba ari imvahonshya.


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